Many Reasons – And Fixes – For Male Infertility

Health Topics

Find Your Perfect Match

Answer a few questions and we'll provide you with a list of primary care providers that best fit your needs.

If you’re trying to conceive and it just isn’t happening after a full year, you’re officially considered infertile. According to the National Institutes of Health:

  • One-third of these cases is due to male infertility issues
  • One-third is due to female infertility
  • One-third is either due to both, or the cause is unknown

For men, there typically aren’t any symptoms that you’re infertile other than the obvious – you can’t conceive. But one or more of the following could be your first clue:

  • Difficulty ejaculating or maintaining an erection
  • Reduced desire for sex
  • Abnormal growth of breast
  • Testicle pain or a lump
  • Frequent respiratory infections
  • Lost or reduced sense of smell

A Sperm’s Journey

Here’s what needs to happen with sperm in order to conceive:

  1. One of your testicles must be functioning properly, and your body must be producing the proper hormones to create healthy sperm.
  2. You must create enough sperm, since not all will reach their intended destination.
  3. Your sperm must mix with semen and move to the penis.
  4. You must successfully ejaculate the sperm.

It’s a complicated process with plenty of room for things to go awry. But there also is plenty of opportunity to boost your chances.

Lifestyle Changes That Improve Fertility

Sometimes boosting fertility can be a simple fix. For instance avoiding hot showers and hot tubs, limiting the time you spend on a bike wearing loose underwear, and removing anything that can create heat in the groin, like a laptop computer or even a cell phone in your front pocket.

Other lifestyle changes that can boost fertility include:

  • Quit smoking. Men who smoke or inhale secondary smoke can have a lower sperm count.
  • Drink less alcohol. It can affect sperm count, lower testosterone levels, and cause erectile dysfunction.
  • Avoid steroids and drugs. Anabolic steroids can cause the testicles to shrink and decrease sperm production. Cocaine and marijuana also can reduce the quantity and quality of sperm.
  • Lose weight if necessary. Obesity has a negative effect on fertility.
  • Treat depression and emotional stress. Both can have a negative effect on fertility.

Medical Reasons For Infertility

These medical conditions also have a negative effect on fertility:

  • Uncontrolled diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Hormone imbalance, low testosterone, and dysfunctional pituitary glands are conditions that often can be treated with medication
  • Complete lack of sperm (the cause of infertility in about 15 percent of men). In some cases this is caused by a physical barrier or blockage rather than a condition that decreases sperm production. This could mean that something is preventing sperm from travelling to the penis for ejaculation. In these instances, your sperm can sometimes be extracted from the testicle to fertilize a woman’s egg.
  • Enlarged veins in the scrotum. Enlarged veins can bring too much heat to the testicles and alter sperm quality and production. The condition, called varicoceles, is often reversible. It’s present in about 40 percent of men with fertility problems.

While some of the medical reasons for male infertility are reversible, some are not. These may include:

  • Genetic abnormalities
  • Trauma to the testicles
  • History of chemotherapy or radiation

Don’t Be Embarrassed To Talk To Your Doctor

Discussing infertility can be difficult. But by getting past any embarrassment you may feel and understanding that conditions that cause male infertility are natural, you and your health care provider can work together to improve your and your partner’s chances of conceiving.

Find Your Perfect Match

Answer a few questions and we'll provide you with a list of primary care providers that best fit your needs.

Premier Health Logo