Questions About Diabetes? Here’s a Quick Guide

Newly diagnosed with diabetes? Caring for a loved one with the disease? Or just looking to learn a little more about the seventh-leading cause of death in the U.S.?

Diabetes is a complex disease to understand and treat. The facts below will get you started on your journey.

What is Diabetes?

Diabetes is a disease in which the body cannot properly turn food into glucose (sugar) to use as energy, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

The pancreas makes insulin, a hormone, to help the glucose get into the cells of the body. With diabetes, your body either cannot produce enough insulin to accomplish that task, or does not use insulin correctly. This causes glucose to build up in your blood, which can be dangerous.

“Diabetes is actually a very sneaky disease,” says Irina Gendler, MD, of Troy Primary Care Physicians. She goes on to explain that diabetes is not only about high sugar levels, “but it’s also about low blood sugar as well, because we have to keep our sugar in a very narrow therapeutic window, and whenever the sugar is too high or too low it is dangerous for the body and for our well-being.”

Get further insight from Dr. Gendler.

Click play to watch the video or read the transcript.

What is diabetes?

Diabetes is actually a very sneaky disease. We have two types of diabetes; diabetes Type One and diabetes Type 2. Type 2 diabetes is much more common and we’re going to concentrate on that one today. Diabetes is the disorder of sugar digestion and does include insulin which your body is making in your pancreas. It is much more involved in the process. I want to tell you it is not only about high sugar but it’s also about low blood sugar as well because we have to keep our sugar in a very narrow, therapeutic window and whenever the sugar is too high or too low it is dangerous for the body and for our wellbeing. So I would like to tell you that it is very important to know some very simple things you can do to prevent yourself or just to make it better and to fight the disease if you already have it. I would like to tell you that you will definitely have to concentrate on lifestyle modification which includes diet and exercising. It was proven definitely that moderate exercising, which probably includes 30 or 40 minutes per day, three or four times/week, may prolong your life 10 years. So it is number one and if you do it and are consistent with that you are going to get some benefit. Secondly, diet. If you have diabetes or pre-diabetes, when you have abnormal blood sugar but we don’t label it as diabetes yet but if you don’t do anything right away you are definitely going to have diabetes. So diet is very important. First of all we have to eliminate all simple sugars. If you like to drink iced tea, try to drink unsweetened iced tea. If you liked baked products I would like to limit you that, cakes, cookies, all that is not good for you. Any starch containing products like potato or rice and noodles or any type of pasta are not a benefit for you. Some people like bread and that’s not very good as well. So you definitely have to limit bread as well.

 

What are the Different Types?

Type 1 diabetes, previously known as juvenile diabetes, is usually diagnosed in children and young adults, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Only five percent of people with diabetes have this form of the disease. Type 1 is an auto-immune disorder, which means that the body’s immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin.

Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of the disease. It can affect people at any age, even children, but occurs most often in people who are middle-aged and older. People who are overweight and inactive are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 usually begins with insulin resistance — a condition that occurs when your body stops using insulin properly. At first, the pancreas just makes more insulin to keep your blood glucose levels normal. But over time, the pancreas can’t keep up with the demand for insulin, and glucose starts to build up in your blood.

“The difference between type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes is that in type 2 diabetes, there is insulin available to use for storage of calories,” says Trisha Zeidan, MD, of the Bull Family Diabetes Center. “That, over time, depletes, and therefore, the blood sugars rise and people need to add medications or insulin to their regimen to control their blood sugars. In type 1 diabetes, the insulin supply in our pancreas actually gets degraded or broken down or destroyed by our immune systems.”

Dr. Zeidan explains more about diabetes.

Click play to watch the video or read the transcript.

What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

There are two types of diabetes. One is type 2 diabetes, which is 95 percent of the cases of diabetes. It’s usually associated with a person who is getting older, but also the risk factors of getting type 2 diabetes is there is a little bit of genetics, so if a parent or siblings have type 2 diabetes, if we’re overweight, if we’re eating too much, if we’re not moving around enough, most of the time it develops as our ages progress, so age is a risk factor for developing type 2 diabetes. The difference between type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes is that in type 2 diabetes, there is insulin available to use for storage of calories. That, over time, depletes, and therefore, the blood sugars rise and people need to add medications or insulin to their regimen to control their blood sugars. In type 1 diabetes, the insulin supply in our pancreas actually gets degraded or broken down or destroyed by our immune systems. There are some genetics related to type 1 diabetes, but it’s not as prevalent as type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes typically occurs in lean, young individuals; however, there are some instances where older individuals can be diagnosed with type 1 diabetes.

 

Gestational diabetes occurs in some pregnant women. It most often goes away after the baby is born.

What is Prediabetes?

Prediabetes, means you have blood glucose levels that are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetes, according to the ADA.

What are the Warning Signs?

You may have no symptoms, or one or more of the following:Questions About Diabetes - Here's a Quick Guide - In Content

  • Frequent urination
  • Excessive thirst
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Extreme hunger
  • Sudden vision changes
  • Tingling or numbness in hands or feet
  • Excessive fatigue
  • Very dry skin
  • Sores that are slow to heal
  • More infections than usual

Nausea, vomiting or stomach pains may accompany some of these symptoms with an abrupt onset of type 1.

Women with gestational diabetes often show no symptoms, which is why it is so important to have glucose levels tested when pregnant.

What are the Risk Factors?

According to the NIH, scientists don’t yet know what causes the body’s cells to attack insulin in patients with type 1 diabetes.

“Diabetes is actually a very sneaky disease.”

You may be at risk for type 2 if you:

  • Are over 45
  • Are overweight or obese
  • Have a first-degree relative (parent, brother or sister) with diabetes
  • Are African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian American or Pacific Islander, or Hispanic American/Latino
  • Have gestational diabetes, or have given birth to at least one baby weighing more than nine pounds
  • Have blood pressure of 130/80 or higher
  • Have abnormal cholesterol levels (HDL level of 35 or lower, or a triglyceride level of 250 or higher)
  • Exercise less than three times a week
  • Have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
  • Had prediabetes on previous testing (an a1c level of 5.7 to 6.4 percent)
  • Have a history of cardiovascular disease

What are the Treatments?

Treatments vary according to the type of diabetes and how far the disease has progressed. Changes in lifestyle (like adopting a healthier diet and more exercise) are crucial, and sometimes oral medication is prescribed. Insulin may or may not be required, depending on the type of diabetes you have, and how far it’s progressed.

What Happens if it Goes Untreated?

If diabetes goes untreated, your body’s cells become starved for energy. In addition, glucose builds up in your blood. This can result in all kinds of complications, and eventually damage to the eyes, kidneys and liver. It can also cause heart disease and stroke, and may require amputations as a result of damaged nerve endings (neuropathy) in the feet and other limbs.

Is There a Cure?

To date, there are only treatments to slow down the progression of diabetes and address the symptoms. There is no cure, but research toward one is actively underway.

Small Steps: Track Your Levels
Record your blood glucose measurements daily to know if you’re within recommended ranges.